Abnormal Head Position

An abnormal head posture or position occurs when the eyes are not looking directly at the target of interest. Abnormal head positions can include chin up, chin down, head tilted to the right or left, and face turns to the right or left. The abnormal position of the head could be due to an ocular or a non-ocular problem. READ MORE »

Accommodative Esotropia

Accommodative esotropia or refractive esotropia is eye crossing that is caused (partially or wholly) by focusing efforts of the eyes as they try to see clearly. READ MORE »


Achromatopsia is a non-progressive visual disorder which is characterized by decreased vision, light sensitivity, and the absence of color vision. READ MORE »

Adult Strabismus

Recent treatment advances allow most adults with misaligned eyes to have surgical correction. READ MORE »


The word albinism refers to a large group of inherited conditions. People with albinism have little or no pigment in their eyes, skin, and/or hair. They have inherited genes that do not make the usual amounts of melanin, the major pigment giving color to our skin and eyes. READ MORE »

Allergic Conjunctivitis

Allergic conjunctivitis is a reaction of the eye to things in the environment such as dust, pollen, animal dander, and medications. READ MORE »


Amblyopia or “lazy eye” is a common vision problem in children and is responsible for vision loss in more children than all other causes combined. Amblyopia is decreased vision of a child that results when one or both eyes send a blurry image to the brain. READ MORE »


Aniridia means an absence of the iris or the colored part of the eye. A small rim of iris may be visible only with use of a special instrument by an ophthalmologist. The pupil is large and the condition in present in both eyes. READ MORE »

Anisocoria and Horner’s Syndrome

The term anisocoria refers to pupils that are different sizes at the same time. The presence of anisocoria can be normal, or it can be a sign of a medical condition. In Horner’s syndrome, the pupil in the involved eye is usually smaller and does not dilate as well as the other eye. READ MORE »

Astigmatism: a Refractive Error

Refractive errors are the result of the eye improperly focusing light on the retina. The following list of conditions are the result of refractive errors. READ MORE »

Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s palsy, is a weakness of the muscles of the face that comes on suddenly and is not caused by any known underlying condition. Bell’s palsy is also known as idiopathic facial palsy (“idiopathic” means of unknown cause and “palsy” means paralysis). Although more common in adults, Bell’s palsy can occur in children. READ MORE »

Blowout Fracture

A blowout fracture is a fracture of one or more of the bones surrounding the eye and is commonly referred to as an orbital floor fracture. READ MORE »

Brown Syndrome

Brown syndrome (named after Dr. Harold W. Brown) is also known as Superior Oblique Tendon Sheath syndrome. It is a mechanical problem in which the superior oblique muscle/tendon (on the outside of the eyeball) does not move freely. READ MORE »

Capillary Hemangioma

A capillary hemangioma (“strawberry” birthmark) is a benign, abnormal overgrowth of blood vessels. READ MORE »


A cataract is any cloudiness or opacity of the normally clear lens of the eye. Cataract size ranges from very small to entire lens involvement. READ MORE »


Preseptal cellulitis is swelling of the superficial or anterior portion of the eyelid in front of the septum. The septum is a sheet of connective tissue that separates the anterior superficial eyelid from the orbit (bony socket that contains the eye). READ MORE »

Chalazion (Stye)

A chalazion is a bump in the eyelid that is usually about the size of a small pea although it is occasionally smaller or larger. More than one chalazion can occur in an eyelid at the same time. READ MORE »

Coats Disease

Coats disease is a congenital abnormality of retinal blood vessels. The dilated vessels leak fluid which may cause exudates to deposit in the retina and possibly lead to retinal detachment. READ MORE »


A coloboma is a congenital defect in the structure of either the eyelid or the eye. READ MORE »

Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction

Tears normally drain through small openings in the corners of the upper and lower eyelids called puncta and enter the nose through the nasolacrimal duct. Tear duct obstruction prevents tears from draining through this system normally. READ MORE »


Conjunctivitis or “pink eye” is a condition where the eyes look pink or red and may have discharge. Symptoms may include burning, irritation, discharge, or crusting of the lashes. READ MORE »

Convergence Insufficiency

Convergence insufficiency is the inability to maintain binocular function (keeping the two eyes working together) while working at a near distance. Typically, one eye will turn outward (intermittent exotropia) when focusing on a word or object from closer than a certain distance. READ MORE »

Corneal Abrasion

A corneal abrasion is a scratch or cut on the surface of the cornea. The cornea is the clear part on the front part of the eye. It covers the colored part of the eye, the iris. READ MORE »

Cortical Visual Impairment

Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is bilateral decreased visual response due to an abnormality affecting the part of the brain responsible for sight. It is one of the most frequent causes of visual impairment in children from developed countries. READ MORE »

Cranial Nerve Palsy

The brainstem connects the spinal cord to the brain. The brainstem performs spinal-cord like functions for the head. The cranial nerves emanate from the brainstem. They provide sensory and motor functions that deal with the special senses (olfaction, sight, hearing, equilibrium, and taste). READ MORE »

Cranial Nerve VI (6) Palsy/Abducens Palsy

Sixth cranial nerve palsy is weakness of the nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle. The lateral rectus muscle pulls the eye away from the nose and when the lateral rectus muscle is weak, the eye turns inward toward the nose (esotropia). The esotropia is larger on distance fixation and on gaze to the same side as the affected lateral rectus muscle. READ MORE »

Dermoid Cyst

A dermoid is an overgrowth of normal, non-cancerous tissue in an abnormal location. Dermoids occur all over the body. The ones in and around the eye are usually comprised of skin structures and fat. READ MORE »

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Diabetes may cause blood vessels in the retina (the light sensitive lining of the eye) to become damaged (leaky or blocked) or grow abnormally. READ MORE »

Dissociated Vertical Divergence (DVD)

DVD is a condition in which one eye drifts upward. The eye may drift upward only occasionally or be deviated almost constantly. READ MORE »

Duane Syndrome

Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a group of eye muscle disorders that cause abnormal eye movements. People with Duane syndrome have difficulty rotating one or both eyes outward (abduction) or inward (adduction). READ MORE »


Endophthalmitis is an infection inside the eyeball (globe). READ MORE »


A type of strabismus in which one or both eyes turn inward. It can be intermittent or constant. READ MORE »


Exotropia refers to eyes that turn outward. It is the opposite of crossed eyes, or esotropia. READ MORE »


Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by damage to the optic nerve that often occurs when the eye pressure is elevated and can result in severe vision loss. READ MORE »

Herpes Eye Disease

Herpes is a family of viruses with many different subtypes. Eye infections and mouth cold sores are most commonly caused by Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type I. READ MORE »

Hyperopia (farsighted): a Refractive Error

Refractive errors are the result of the eye improperly focusing light on the retina. The following list of conditions are the result of refractive errors. READ MORE »


A hyphema is an accumulation of blood in the space between the cornea and the iris. READ MORE »

Infantile Esotropia

A. Esotropia is an inward turning of one or both eyes. Infantile esotropia begins at birth or during the first year of life. Infantile esotropia is also called congenital esotropia. READ MORE »


Iritis is inflammation of the iris. READ MORE »

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis is defined as arthritis (inflammation of the joints) of greater than 3 months’ duration with onset at less than 16 years of age. READ MORE »


Keratoconus is a condition that is due to progressive steepening of the cornea resulting in a “cone” shaped appearance. The cornea becomes thin near the center and may lead to myopia (near sightedness) and/or severe astigmatism. It is usually bilateral and typically begins to develop during adolescence. READ MORE »

Leber’s Congenital Amaurosis

Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA) is an inherited condition in which findings commonly first appear after 2-3 months of age. LCA affects both the rods and cones (cells which detect light) of the retina. READ MORE »


Leukocoria literally means “white pupil.” It occurs when the pupil (the round hole in the colored part of the eye) is white rather than the usual black. READ MORE »

Marfan Syndrome

The Marfan syndrome is a heritable condition that affects the strength of the connective tissues that hold parts of the body together and provide a framework for growth and development. Because connective tissue is found throughout the body, patients with Marfan syndrome have problems with a number of systems including the skeleton, eyes, heart and blood vessels, nervous system, skin and lungs. READ MORE »

Molluscum Contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum is a common viral infection in children. It causes bumps on the skin including the eyelids and eyelid margins (ocular molluscum). The bumps are usually pearl-like and dome-shaped with a central crater (umbilication). READ MORE »

Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy

Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the older term Double Elevator Palsy, is an inability to elevate one eye, usually resulting in one eye that is pointed downward relative to the other eye (hypotropia). READ MORE »

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack normal skeletal muscle tissue and render it weak. It occurs in both children and adults and can affect different muscle groups in the body. READ MORE »

Myopia (nearsighted): a Refractive Error

Refractive errors are the result of the eye improperly focusing light on the retina. The following list of conditions are the result of refractive errors. READ MORE »


Neurofibromatosis is a condition characterized by multiple growths which derive from primitive cells in the body. The growths occur along nerve paths, anywhere in the body. Neurofibromatosis skin lesions are typically flat, pigmented patches but occasionally are elevated flesh-colored bumps. READ MORE »


Nystagmus is an involuntary, shaking, “to and fro” movement of the eyes. READ MORE »

Optic Nerve Atrophy

Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. READ MORE »

Optic Nerve Drusen

Optic nerve drusen are abnormal globular concretions of protein and calcium salts which accumulate in the optic nerve and usually become visible after the first decade of life. They occur in both eyes more often than just one. READ MORE »

Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital condition in which the optic nerve is underdeveloped (small). READ MORE »

Optic Neuritis

Optic neuritis is a condition that involves inflammation of the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries the visual signal from the eye to the brain. READ MORE »


Strabismus is the medical term for eye misalignment. Pseudostrabismus refers to a false appearance of strabismus. Most often the eye(s) have the false appearance of turning inward. READ MORE »


Pterygium means “wing” and refers to a wing-like growth that spreads over the cornea. Pterygia are more common in warm climates such as the tropics and are associated with early exposure to the sun (especially during childhood and teen years). READ MORE »


A droopy eyelid or ptosis can be present at birth (congenital) or occur later in life (acquired). Poor development of the levator palpebris muscle in the upper eyelid with resulting abnormal function is the most common cause of congenital ptosis. Acquired ptosis has many causes. Ptosis can involve one or both upper eyelids, with or without asymmetry. READ MORE »

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors are the result of the eye improperly focusing light on the retina. The following list of conditions are the result of refractive errors. READ MORE »

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of diseases characterized by a gradual loss of vision (night and peripheral, predominantly) caused by changes in the retina (pigment and neural cells, blood vessels, etc). READ MORE »


Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the eye(s) that originates from the retina (light-sensitive lining of the eye). One (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyes may be affected and typically occurs in children less than 5 years old. READ MORE »

Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disease caused by abnormal development of retina blood vessels in premature infants. READ MORE »

Retinoschisis (Congenital X-linked Retinoschisis, Juvenile X-linked Retinoschisis)

The retina is the back part of the eye that sends images to the brain. The retina consists of ten layers with the inside surface consisting primarily of nerve fibers. The term “schisis” means split. Hence retinoschisis is a split in the layers of the retina. READ MORE »

Rubinstein- Taybi Syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a genetic multi-system disorder characterized by facial abnormalities, broad thumbs and great toes, and developmental disability. READ MORE »

Sixth Nerve Palsy/Abducens Palsy/Cranial Nerve 6 Palsy

Sixth cranial nerve palsy is weakness of the nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle. The lateral rectus muscle pulls the eye to the side, away from the nose. An eye affected by sixth nerve palsy turns inward (esotropia). The esotropia is larger when looking at a distance and also to the same side as the affected lateral rectus muscle. READ MORE »

Stickler Syndrome

Stickler syndrome is a progressive genetic disorder of connective tissue throughout out the body. READ MORE »


Strabismus is any misalignment of the eyes. READ MORE »

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Sturge-Weber syndrome is characterized by a reddish discoloration of the skin on one side of the face (port wine stain) and malformation of blood vessels of the brain. READ MORE »

Superior Oblique Palsy

A superior oblique palsy is a weakness of the superior oblique muscle, one of the extra ocular muscles of the eye. A palsy refers to a complete weakening of the muscle while a paresis is a partial weakening. This condition is usually unilateral (one eye) but can be bilateral (both eyes). As the fourth cranial nerve innervates the superior oblique, this is also known as a fourth nerve palsy. READ MORE »

Third Nerve Palsy

Palsy or weakness of the third cranial nerve causes loss of movement of the eye up, down, and in as well as drooping (ptosis) of the upper eyelid. In a complete palsy, the pupil may be enlarged, and the ability of the eye to focus at near (accommodate) may be impaired. The weakness of the third nerve may be partial or complete. READ MORE »

Thyroid Eye Disorders

The following list details several disorders that are the result of a malfunctioning thyroid gland. READ MORE »


Toxoplasmosis is an infection with the protozoan intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In the eye, Toxoplasma infections frequently cause significant inflammation and subsequent scarring which may temporarily or permanently impair vision. READ MORE »